Fundamentals of ManagementFinal Project Section (E)Topic: STEREOTYPING in Conflicts situationsSubmitted to:Miss. Arooj AlviSubmitted by:Group MembersSANA SOHAIL L1F16MBAM0030RANA ASAD DOST L1F16MBAM0031MUHAMMAD ZEESHAN L1F16MBAM0032MUHAMMAD WAQAS L1F16MBAM0058MOMINA MUGHAL L1F16MBAM0111Dated: 24/01/2018 Contents1. Introduction 12. Literature Review 33. Methodology 54. Data analysis 65. Gap Analysis 106. Conclusion and recommendations 137. Bibliography 158. Appendix 16 Executive SummaryThis report focuses on resolving the conflicts occurring by a stereotype in the organization. According to this report the author explore the stereotype in their organization. This report also includes the view of 25% managers and 75% employees on the negative stereotype in their organization. The methodology used in this report is both primary and secondary. The major findings in this report is the conflict between the employees of PIA who are in misperceptions about their coworkers on the basis of stereotype assumptions. This research work recommended that the organization should affectively work on the stereotype culture negotiations, salary negotiation and performance appraisal. AcknowledgementWe would like to express our deepest appreciation to all who provided us the possibility to complete this project. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our subject teacher “Ma’am Arooj Alvi” who assigned us this project. We are highly indebted to her for their guidance. She has been very helpful and supporting throughout the course of project. We are very thankful to her for motivating us to work hard. Also our group’s effort was remarkable. And above all, to the great Allah almighty, the author of knowledge and wisdom, for his countless blessings. We thank you “You really can’t stereotype people or put them in boxes it’s unfair”(Kesha)”Every character when born is a stereotype”(Michael Patrick King)”I imagine hell like this: Italian punctuality, German humor and English wine”(Peter Ustina) 1. Introduction• Reason for choosing the topic we have chosen this topic because stereotyping is very important and critical for organizational success. Stereotypes describes the conflict situations arising in your organization and without knowing it affects there would be no progress in an organization for an organization it is necessary to know about the positive, negative and neutral effects of stereotypes.• Stereotypes are assumptions made about a group of people and are applied to individuals, irrespective of their personal characteristics, because of their affiliation with a certain group. Stereotypes can be positive, negative or neutral. While both positive and negative stereotypes can be harmfulTypes of stereotype:a) Negative Stereotypes Many common stereotypes are derogatory, in that they’re based on negative references to a person’s ethnicity and race, age, gender, politics or sexual orientation. The use of stereotypes prevents us from getting to know one another *For example* imagine your new coworker has a political affiliation if you make assumptions about your new colleague, you might start off with a hostile and unfriendly relationship. This could significantly impede your ability to work together.b) Positive stereotype can cause people to place unreasonable expectations on members of the particular ethnicity which in turn can lead to undue pressure 1) Positive stereotypes set the bar unrealistically high 2) Positive stereotypes can inhibit an individual’s ability to perform. You’ve heard that Asian people are good at math, right? Well, tell an Asian person that right before a math exam and you increase their potential… to bomb it. 3) Positive stereotypes can be alienating and depressing to individuals who are supposed to possess them, but don’t• Effects of stereotypes are characteristics imposed upon groups of people because of their race, nationality, and sexual orientation, among others. But these characteristics tend to be oversimplifications of the groups involved.For example someone who meets a few individuals from a particular country and finds them to be quiet and reserved may spread the word that all citizens from the country in question are quiet and reserved.• The danger of stereotyping in workplace it’s often thought that diversity in the workplace only involves race and gender, but in actual fact, diversity in the workplace is much broader than that. Your colleagues or employees differ in a number of ways, such as age, relationship status, education, and even their role in the business. Stereotyping, or in other words placing labels on people, results from making general assumptions about an individual with little or no personal knowledge about them unfortunately, in the workplace it’s no laughing matter. What happens when you make these assumptions is you subconsciously start to look for things to confirm your beliefs … and overtime you might pick up on one or two isolated incidents that cause you justify or confirm your assumptions. So you close your mind about the individual which damages your ability to really work well with that person.For example single vs. Married: Single people feel they are often thought to be more interested in their social life than they are their work. 2. Literature ReviewThis chapter reviews the available literature in the area of effects of stereotype in an organization. This chapter highlights the negative effects of stereotyping in the conflict situation. It concludes Political Affiliation in a research article by Liana De Girolami Cheney. The author said that there are many groups of coworkers in an organization who have political affiliation that differs from us (Cheney, 1990’s). The other coworkers were of the view that the coworkers who have the political affiliation are paid double from them. The article also suggest that the other coworker also present a statement that they are not well trained and have less experience and are still on the jobs (Lowell, 1990’s). According to the article they also claimed that they never get fired and often seems that they complete fifteen years and above time period in their jobs (Wolfthal, 1990’s). Based on the negative stereotypes affiliated with your coworker’s political party, if you make assumptions about your new colleague, you might start off with unfriendly relationship and this could simply impede your ability to work together.Gender Profiling in a research article by Rodan and Balnaves the authors says that there are also some common stereotypes of men and women in an organization. The article states that it is assumed that in an organization men are strong and do all the work. Men are the back bone and women are not as smart as a men. Women cannot do as good of a job as a men (kennedy, 2009). The article also fines that the air hostess are not good in service whereas the guys are good in serving but are messy and unclean (Sheppard, 2011). On the basis of this negative stereotyping assumption in an organization is creating a war situation between both the genders and damage the image of the staff as well as organization and reducing the friendly relationship between them.Cultures in a research article by M.Junaid Younus the author says that stereotypes also exist about cultures an countries as a whole and in an organization (September, 2012). The article suggests that in all Arab and Muslims the view is they are terrorist. On that assumption organization are considered to be week in culture because they conduct terrorist activities (Sadiq, 2012). The Article also finds that organizational culture shows that the young air hostess are only concerned about their physical appearance. They try to follow the white Americans blonds and the old air hostess are mostly seen in a high bun and a perpetual frown on their face (khan, 2012). The article also states that the young air hostess can only become models whereas the elderly have health issues and behave like children (Lone, 2012). It is also stated that all Asians eat rice and drive slow on that basis an organization serves rice in their lunch & dinner and their flights are delayed. These negative stereotype assumptions create the misconceptions about the culture of an organization.Effects of stereotyping on an organization creates many conflicts in an organization. According to (Kokemuller, 2007), he states that as there are in an organization and factors which contribute towards propensity of stereotyping in an organization such as race, religion, gender, age. So stereotyping is a major problem. If the employees of an organization are judgmental rather than putting faith in abilities and skills of people which ruins the teamwork and collaboration in an organization. For example if there is a woman in a team but men don’t like to take any help from any female co-worker as they think that she is incapable of doing these tasks because she’s a female. There comes another problem with stereotyping which lowers the morale of employees because when employees have to face criticism, comments which lowers the motivation and as a result, they do not develop their interest in performing their jobs as organization has a very bad environment. So at the end, company has to suffer low production. Overall stereotyping influence the workplace environment.In a research article (MCcoy, 2011), he states that stereotypes in offices are not so much different from the stereotypes in everyday life but offices have different kinds of stereotypes race, religion, age, gender. Furthermore, he states in his article about age stereotyping in an organization. For example, younger employees think or believe that older employees are backward and they can’t handle modern technology and incapable of doing these modern tasks while older employees believe that their younger co-workers are lazy and over confident. He also states that most commonly the problems relating to age stereotyping in an organization are employees judge each other on age factor and employers recruit new employees from certain age groups. Moreover, he states about racial stereotyping in her article. Mostly people of different popular cultures think in this way and are racial stereotypes. They say African-Americans are lazy and unintelligent people. So, overall he discussed two types of stereotypes in an organization who can ruin collaboration and teamwork in an organization.3. MethodologyThis chapter discusses the research methodology in detail. This chapter also talks about both the secondary and primary data. The secondary data talks about the articles taken from Google On the other hand the primary data is quantitative which is conducted by the questionnaire. The organization chosen for this survey is PIA. The size of the people where 65% males and 35% females. The sample conducted in this survey are done by 20 peoples which includes the target market of 25% managers and 75% employees.IntroductionPakistan International Airlines Corporation (PIA) is the flag carrier of Pakistan, whose government owns 85 percent of its shares. PIA’s route network stretches to Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and North America. It connects 35 cities within Pakistan. Six million people flew the airline in 2000, when passenger traffic accounted for 85 percent of revenues. Engineering and charter services accounted for nine percent. PIA also conducts some contract work for aerospace manufacturers.4. Data analysisThis chapter discusses about the findings and evaluations which have been taken from the Survey conducted in the chapter 4. The data will also be represented with the help of Tables and Pie Charts.1) Many stereotype conflicts occur in jobs and due to these conflicts people get less satisfied from their jobs. IN PIA 80% of the workers are not satisfied from their job. It was revealed by the survey that Firefighting is thought of as a man’s job, whereas nursing is thought of as women’s work2) A job that starts out as gender ambiguous takes on one gender or the other based on who fills the role first In PIA 55% workers agree that gender conflicts occur in their organization3) Cultural stereotypes limit management’s ability to make best use of their employees’ skills and help them develop new skills 35% people rated that cultural stereotype conflicts occur in PIA4) Cultural differences in negotiations tend to occur when aggressiveness is high in negotiation up to 60% people responded that in negotiation aggressiveness is high in PIA5) The hypothesis that the impact of cultural stereotype in negotiation is only 40% collaborating in PIA6) To cope with culture stereotype in negotiation 55% compromise is done in our organization.7) Mostly up to 55% workers answered that cultural stereotype in negotiation is done by 3rd parties in PIA8) The solutions that are given for these conflicts are not happily accepted by peoples and 45% are not satisfied from these solutions9) Racial stereotypes are automatic and exaggerate mental pictures that we hold about all members of a particular racial group In PIA 35% people create these racial image in the mind for their members10) Stereotype threat in salary negotiations is mediated by reservation salary up to 40% discrimination occur in PIA due to salaries and promotions11) Although Gender role is one of a number of other social roles, it often leads to the concrete performances is subject to the current holder of social position to which creates conflicts and 50% females in PIA answered that their positions have been improved.12) The survey examines the perceptions about typically ‘male’ and ‘female’ hiring in PIA in which 55% females disagree that they don’t have equal job opportunities.13) The survey demonstrates that gender stereotypes do matter at work; that the authority that managers experience depends strongly on whether they can work easily under their opposite gender or not and 50% disagree to work under each other.14) Stereotype conflicts can occur due to political affiliations. In PIA 80% people believe that nepotism is the cause of conflict.15) 90% workers are not satisfied from their top managers and they want performance appraisal or incentives on their work.5. Gap AnalysisThis chapter includes and discusses the differences between the actual performance and desired performance of an organization. So overall it identifies the gaps in literature work and data analysis of PIAC.1) Cultural differences in business negotiations: The first difference between literature work and findings is the cultural differences in business negotiations. According to results, cultural differences cause many problematic situations in an organization and its negotiations as well. For example, employees or people from different cultures are very different from each other. There are communication barriers, different thinking and decision making styles. As well as our organization is concerned aggressiveness in business negotiations is 60%. Negotiating with someone from a different country or of different culture is more ambiguous. So creating stereotypic images in minds is risky for organization. The reason of this gap is lack of practices and poor strategies in organization which causes these cultural stereotyping in negotiations. Company needs to make moral codes to overcome this. 2) Effects of cultural stereotyping in negotiations: There is another gap in literature work and results obtained from survey. Our literature doesn’t include the effects of cultural stereotyping in business negotiations so this is a gap in our research. In PIA the impact of cultural stereotypes in negotiations is 40%.The reason of this is some external factors such as In airline industry there are many existing rivals so rivals are from different cultures so cultural stereotypes may misunderstood them only by judging their cultures and all that. Another reason is there is a lack of proper ethical practices in an organization. For example cultural stereotypes have many ideas about person before meeting him that has different culture. 3) Solutions for conflicts: In literature work the many authors didn’t talk about solutions, they talked about exploring stereotypes in conflict situations of an organization. In many organizations there occurs so many conflicts and after that solutions for conflicts are given and everybody has to work in accordance with this solutions. But according to survey 45% of people aren’t satisfied with the available solutions for conflicts. The reason of this gap is just because the organizational weak culture where there is no unity among employees. They don’t accept things. So literature work doesn’t include this aspect at all.4) Stereotyping in Salary negotiations: Though our literature includes different stereotyping including gender, age, cultural, racial but it didn’t include the aspect of stereotyping in salary negotiations while our results and findings proved that so this is another in our study. According to the survey, PIA’s employees responded that this happens in our organization. Women demand less salary as they are not considered good negotiators as men are. This is a stereotypic belief that women are given low salaries as they aren’t good salary negotiators as men are. Furthermore employers also pre-assume the skills and abilities of men as strong salary negotiator so they give them jobs with handsome salaries. The reason of this gap is the role of supervisors, recruitment management should deal with women also while collecting them. Salaries are not set upon these ideas.5) Performance based designations: The literature work doesn’t incorporate this fact. According to the results, many female employees replied that their positions have been improved recently whereas in literature doesn’t include it only includes how different kinds of stereotyping influences workplace. There are many different reasons of conflicts in an organization based on different reasons. The reason of this gap is the lack of structure, policies and strategies of Organization to promote people (men & women) according to their performance and skills.6) Managerial stereotyping: Though literature work discussed gender stereotyping in an organization which ruins collaboration and teamwork in any organization but the most important stereotyping in an organization is managerial stereotyping which means both genders male and female can’t work under each other in case of other gender as a manager. According to survey of PIAC, it us found that 70% are those who can’t work under each other. According to this stereotyping, stereotypes think about one gender as incapable of becoming manager and doing things. They can’t work under that gender manager. This overall dismiss the capabilities of that gender. Which is not good for an organization. There may be some internal factors of Organization behind this such as employee’s dominance, role of supervisors and culture of Organization. So this was a gap in our study.7) Rewards on performance appraisal basis : This is another gap in research as literature work hasn’t included this aspect of conflict. In many organizations. There are many reasons of conflicts. If in any organizations employers do not give rewards on fair basis or performance basis this might be a reason of conflict. Which ultimately disturbs the motivation of employees and their interest in performing jobs. According to this survey of PIAC, employees complained that incentives, compensation and rewards are not given on performance basis. The whole reason of this gap is company has weak structure, no rules and regulations to follow. It should plan for giving incentives and compensation to employees to motivate them , to strengthen them to work harder and organization should arrange performance appraisal meetings after 3 4 months with employees to guide them or motivate them in a right way.6. Conclusion and recommendationsConclusion:This chapter states that conclusion which has been deducted from the literature review and gap analysis. This chapter concludes the authors view on the stereotypes. In the research articles the author said that in the organization many conflicts arises on the basis of political affiliation. The co-workers were of the view that their coworkers also have political affiliation by which they enjoy high salary permanent job, and more vacations. In the research article the author says that there are some stereotypes of men and women in an organization. The author says that men are strong at work as compared to women on this basis many negative stereotype occur in an organization which reduces the friendly relationship between them. However the other research article suggests that stereotypes also exist about cultures. This articles suggests that in all Arab and Muslims the view is they are terrorist. The sort of negative stereotype creates the misperceptions about the culture of the organization. Recommendations:By taking the conclusion into consideration it is recommended that:• The organization should work on the cultural differences in business negotiation.• They should reframe the results which may cause problematic situations between the employees and co-workers. • By the analysis it is also recommended that the organization should focus on the effect of cultural stereotyping negotiation. They should understand the culture of different countries and instead of making assumptions on their different cultures. The organization should cooperate with their culture. • The conflicts also results in salary negotiation and the organization should properly check the salaries and maintain the balance in it. So that stereotypes in salary negotiation does not occur. • The conflicts in designation also occur and it is recommended that there should be no misuse of the authority. • The same as in managerial stereotypes it is recommended that managers should cooperate with their employees such that the male employees should be ready to work with female managers. • It is also recommended that the organization should do performance appraisal of their employees.7. BibliographyCheney, L. D. (1990’s). Negative sterotyping in organization.kennedy. (2009). Negative sterotyping in organization.khan, A. F. (2012). Humsafar.Kokemuller, N. (2007). Humsafar.Lone, O. M. (2012). Humsafar.Lowell, M. (1990’s). Negative sterotyping in organization.Loweu. (1990’s). Negative sterotyping in organization.MCcoy, W. (2011). Types of sterotypes in workplace.Sadiq, A. (2012). Humsafar .Sadiq, A. (2012). Humsafar.Sheppard. (2011). Negative sterotyping in organization.Wolfthal, D. (1990’s). Negative sterotyping in organization.8. AppendixConflicts arising in PIA companyGender Male Female Age 20-30 31-40 40 above Designation Section 1Rate each question from (1-5). 1 2 3 4 5Q 1: Up to what extent are you satisfied from your job? Q 2: Up to what extent gender conflicts occur in your organization? Q 3: Up to what extent cultural conflicts occur in your organization? Q 4: Up to what extent negotiation is conducted in your culture in terms of aggressiveness? Q 5: Up to what extent negotiation is conducted in your culture in terms of collaboration? Q 6: Up to what extent negotiation is conducted in your culture in terms of compromise? Q 7: Up to what extent negotiation in your culture in terms of consideration for unrepresented third parties? Q 8: Up to what level you are satisfied from the solutions given after the conflict? Q 9: Up to what extent racial conflicts occur in your organization? Q10: Up to what extent discrimination occur in terms of salary in your organization? Section 2Select any one option for each question. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly DisagreeQ 11: In the past five years, do you think that the overall position of women as compared to men in your organization has improved? Q 12: Do you think that women in your organization have equal job opportunities with men? Q 13: Are you comfortable if your supervisor is men/women? Q 14: Do you think nepotism conflicts occur in your organization? Q 15: What do you think that rewards or incentives are given to employees on the performance appraisal?