Using HavenParking Lot ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Fig 4A photo from

Using GIS for GeographicalAnalysisUP 845672 | Principles of GIScience | January 2018845672TABLE OF CONTENTSNetwork analysis …………………………………….…………………….. PART AMulti-criteria analysis ……………………………….…………………….. PART BCatchment analysis ……………………………….………………………. PART CDigital terrain modelling ………………………….……………………….. PART DLIST OF FIGURESA screenshot showing 48 glass recycling points in Portsmouth ……………………….…… Fig 1A point suggested behind Queen Alexandra Hospital ……………………………………….. Fig 2Exact point of Location as seen on Google Street View …………………………………….. Fig 3A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new glass recycling point (GRP) at the Shore HavenParking Lot ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Fig 4A photo from Google Street View showing the Shore Haven Parking Lot ………..………. Fig 5A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new (GRP) by New Inn, On Havant Road ………. Fig 6A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new (GRP) by New Inn, On Havant Road ………. Fig 7A screenshot of Portsmouth City after the 8 new (GRP) have been added and the 500metrethreshold applied ………………………………………………………………………………… Fig 8A 1:100,000 scale briefing map for Operation Brown Trousers ..…………………………… Fig 9Shows the Slope of the entire area in different shades of black ………………………….. Fig 10Shows the hill shade and altitude of the entire area with different shades of Blue and theobservation posts ……………………………………………………………………………… Fig 11Shows other layers that were taken into consideration for the creation of the operation browntrouser map ……………………………………………………………………………………. Fig 12Shows the Altitude, Hill Shaded layer and Strahler Stream Vector of the River Valency ofBoscastle ………………………………………………………………………………………. Fig 13Is a complete model diagram which includes the catchment statistics table for slope andaltitude, Strahler Stream Order Vector Layer and Hill Shading Layer. This was built by theauthor on Model Builder ………………………………………………………………………. Fig 14Shows Altitude, Hill Shaded layer, Strahler Stream Vector of Palmers Brook ………….. Fig 15Is an Image of the Flood that occurred on River Valency in Boscastle in 2004 …….….. Fig 16Is an Image of Palmer’s Brook in the Isle of Wight …………………………………….….. Fig 17Is a map of Bembridge, Isle of Wight …………………………………………………….…. Fig 18845672Shows the hill shading, layer tinting and contouring over the San Paulo Site ………..… Fig 19Shows the application of break lines over the San Paulo River ………………………….. Fig 20Shows the de-trended surface of San Paulo River …………………………………………. Fig 21LIST OF TABLESList of the number additional houses covered by extra glass recycling points ………… Table 1Showing possible random and systematic errors …………………………………………. Table 2845672PART ANETWORK ANALYSIS FOR EMERGENCY SERVICES AND FACILITIESMANAGEMENTGlass is one hundred percent recyclable, it is unremittingly recyclable. Brokenglass can be back in the kitchen as a new bottle in 30 days.It is impossible to imagine what a piece of glass was used for 5 to 10 years ago.A jam jar today could have been a bottle of soft drink last year.Fig 1: A screenshot showing 48 glass recycling points in PortsmouthAccording to this map, most of the glass recycling points are located aroundjunctions, sort of at the meeting points of streets. Far from Playgrounds and845672parks. They are not too close to houses but they remain at 500metres ofaccessibility or less to these houses.Well, this is so in the area of Portsmouth and Southsea. Going north, towardsCosham and Farlington, we notice the glass recycling points are rather scantyand therefore the population has to travel longer distances to reach these fewpoints.The Previous paragraph prompted my reason for recommending 8 new glassrecycling points in Portsmouth.A) The first suggestion is behind Queen Alexandra Hospital. At the junction ofNightingale and Southwick Hill Roads. I chose to locate the first new glassrecycling point there because it is obviously a very strategic position for this.There is no household too close, and the glass recycling point will definitely beuseful here.Fig 2: A point suggested behind Queen Alexandra Hospital845672Fig 3: Exact point of Location as seen on Google Street ViewB) Also, I located another glass recycling point close to the parking space atShore Haven, Southampton Road A27. This is equally a very good location forthis new glass recycling point as it will be easily accessible.Fig 4: A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new glass recycling point at the Shore HavenParking Lot845672Fig 5: A photo from Google Street View showing the Shore Haven Parking LotC) A third point was suggested by New Inn, on Havant Road. There are a goodnumber of stores here, therefore the glass recycling point will really beappreciated as they have great need of it.Fig 6: A Screenshot from ArcMap showing a new glass recycling point by New Inn, OnHavant Road845672Fig 7: A photo from Google Earth Street View of New Inn, Havant RoadThe other recycling points suggested include;Nightingale Court on Havant Road, Cycle World on London Road, Dob’s diner onCopnor Road, Lidl on the Goldsmith Avenue and The Sweet convenience Storeon Drayton Road.With the 48 initial recycling points, 45817 houses were located in the 500 meterrange. After these suggestions, it was noticed that 59,556 households were nowlocated in the 500 meter threshold. This is detailed in the table below;Behind Queen Alexandra Hospital 54017Shore Haven Parking Lot 54320Nightingale Court, Havant Road 54983New Inn, Havant Road 55808Cycle World, London Road 56606Dob’s Diner, Copnor Road 58068Lidl, Goldsmith Avenue 59005Sweetland Convenience Store, Drayton Road 59556Table 1: List of the number additional houses covered by extra glass recycling points.845672Fig 8: A screenshot of Portsmouth City after the 8 new recycling points have been addedand the 500 metre threshold applied.Since the need is for 5 new points, I advise the last 3 points can be ignored andthe first 5 utilized by the Portsmouth City Council as these cover more houses.845672PART BRASTER ANALYSIS FOR MULTI-CRITERIA SITE SELECTION – A MILITARYSCENARIOFig 9: A 1:100,000 scale briefing map for Operation Brown TrousersTo create the above map, the author made use of the toolbox, using a goodnumber of commands but mostly the reclass, to reclassify cells. Other ArcGIScommands which were used include; the slope, the viewshed, the buffer and theidentity overlay.845672More importantly, to determine the drop zone, many criteria’s had to beconsidered. Some of these include:? The degree of the slope,? The distance from main roads, cables and urban areas,? The observation posts,? As well as woodland or marshy areas / the sea.A helicopter landing zone should not be located close to the above listed areas.Fig 10: Shows the Slope of the entire area in different shades of black845672To locate a drop zone, we have to make sure it is not on a steep slope, but onflat ground. Thus the suggestion was made on the darkest shade of the slopewhich represents the flattest ground.PS: The dark green block is the suggested drop zone.Fig 11: Shows the hill shade and altitude of the entire area with different shades ofBlue and the observation postsAs we can notice on the above map, the altitude varies a lot, ranging from 0 to600 meters. The drop zone was therefore suggested to be on the lowest altitudewhich is extremely safe for landing helicopters. This area is represented by thesky blue colour.845672Furthermore Observation posts had to be avoided because they make use ofradars with which they get information from far distances. A landing zone shouldnot be located at the sight of enemies. Therefore the HLZ was suggested farfrom these four points.Fig 12: Shows other layers that were taken into consideration for the creation ofthe operation brown trouser map.Other layers such as main roads (depicted with the red lines), Tracks (depictedwith the yellow lines), Coastlines, Cables, Urban areas (depicted with the colourpink) and Marshy Areas (depicted with the colour olive green) were all taken intoconsideration for the creation of this map.845672A drop zone has to be located far from this areas because there is the need forspace to land helicopters and also for the safety of the population against noisepollution as well as accidents.LimitationsNevertheless, my final results had limitations because of the following;- The Sources were not up to date. The coastline data dates from 2002, themain roads, tracks, cables and Land cover were last revised in 2008. Thealtitude data was last revised in 2001.- Therefore with the layer data not been up to date, we are therefore notsure how accurate our information is. All of these are subject to changeover the years.- In addition, the viewshed analysis tool which was used was the viewshed.If the Observer Points was used, we would have been able to identifyspecifically which observer points are visible from each raster surfacelocation, meanwhile with the viewshed we can only know the number ofobservers that can see a given location.- Moreover, buffer zones were only created around Main roads, Cables andUrban areas. The results would have been more easily achieved andmore accurate if buffer zones were also created around marshy areas andthe coastlines.845672PART CDERIVING RUNOFF CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RIVER VALENCY USINGARCGIS HYDROLOGY TOOLSFig 13: Shows the Altitude, Hill Shaded layer and Strahler Stream Vector of theRiver Valency of Boscastle.845672845672Fig 14: Is a complete model diagram which includes the catchment statistics table forslope and altitude, Strahler Stream Order Vector Layer and Hill Shading Layer. This wasbuilt by the author on Model Builder.The above model was run on the Palmer’s Brook Catchment (IoW2mDTM in theIoWDB geodatabase), and below was the result.845672Fig 15: Shows the Altitude, Hill Shaded layer and Strahler Stream Vector ofPalmers Brook.845672The River Valency is known to have a nonporous geology and a very reactivecatchment. This mean that her catchment responds swiftly to precipitation, andsubsides quickly too. River Valency flows through the Boscastle village which isthe confluence of 3 rivers, namely: Paradise, Jordan and Valency.On the other hand, most of Palmer’s Brook flows in wandering manner through anatural copse (woodland).- River Valency is more prone to flood than Palmer’s Brook for the fact thatit has many steep slopes. These steep slopes cause water to move veryquickly on the exterior.- Furthermore, River Valency flows over impermeable rocks. The water cantherefore not transude these rock layers. This is not the case of Plamer’sBrook.Fig 16: Is an Image of the Flood that occurred on River Valency in Boscastle in 2004.- In addition, the fact most of Palmer’s Brook meanders through awoodland, make it less susceptible to floods. This is so because the treesserve as canopies, they absorb part of the water through their leaves androots. Unlike River Valency which flows mostly through a village, here,constructions on the sides of the river has added to the amount of sealedsurfaces.845672Fig 17: Is an Image of Palmer’s Brook in the Isle of Wight.- Also, for the fact that Palmer’s Brook (6.4km) is shorter than River Valency(8.3km) it therefore won’t flood as much.- River Valency received in 3hrs the amount of rain it usually curtails in amonth (more than 60mm). This was intense. It was a major factor of theflood in 2004. The intensity of rainfall also plays a huge role in flooding.845672PART DDIGITAL TERRAIN MODELLING USING SURFER FOR WINDOWSFig 18: Is a map of Bembridge, Isle of Wight845672The map above was created using the Golden Surface Software as anintroduction to Digital Terrain Modelling.For the sake of this project, we calculated the Mean and the Standard Deviationto look out for the systematic errors as well as the random errors. We did thisusing the residual. A residual is the difference between the Z value (Height orAltitude) in a data file and the interpolated Z value on a gridded surface.The result for the Mean error was a slightly negative value, precisely: -0.03 andour Standard Deviation (random error) was 0.49.Below are possible reasons why;Possible Random Errors Possible Systematic ErrorsWeather condition during datacollectionEffectiveness of Airborne Lidar usedto collect dataThe homogeneity in vegetation type Mishandling of Lidar InstrumentThe Surface of the Terrain The electronic scale was set too highat the time of the readingTable 2: Showing possible random and systematic errorsWe can therefore conclude from our results that the magnitudes of positive andnegative values are quite similar thus the neutral Standard Deviation value whichwas derived. Perhaps if more data was recorded, these random errors won’t be.845672Fig 19: Shows the hill shading, layer tinting and contouring over the San PauloSite.845672Fig 20: Shows the application of break lines over the San Paulo RiverFig 21: Shows the de-trended surface of San Paulo River.845672REFERENCES? Glass Recycling UK Website. Retrieved from http://www.glassrecycle.co.uk/.? Leeds City Council Website. Retrieved fromhttp://www.leeds.gov.uk/residents/Pages/Glass-recycling.aspx.? Stack Exchange Incorporation, Geographic Information Systems. Retrieved fromhttps://gis.stackexchange.com/questions/52221/difference-between-viewshedand-observer-points? R. H. B. Exell, 2001. Practical Maths, King Mongkut’s University ofTechnology Thonburi. Retrieved fromhttps://www.physics.umd.edu/courses/Phys276/Hill/Information/Notes/ErrorAnalysis.html? C. Kendall, J. J. McDonnell. Elsevier. Isotope Tracers in CatchmentHydrology. pg 368.? T. Bond (2013) The River Management Blog. Retrieved fromhttps://therivermanagementblog.wordpress.com/2013/04/03/the-story-ofboscastle-2004-a-geomorphic-perspective/? Island Rivers, All about rivers on the Isle of Wight. (2017) Retrieved fromhttp://www.islandrivers.org.uk/the-rivers/east-wight/palmers-brook/? The Wonders of Astronomy and Geography (2014) Retrieved fromhttps://vamoswearegolden.wordpress.com/? River Flooding Management Revision 1 and Revision 3. (2014). Retrievedfromhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/water_rivers/river_flooding_management_rev3.shtml