INTRODUCTION compared to previous processes that was made

INTRODUCTION

 

The definition of ‘sustainable development is
the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs’ (World Commission on Environment
and Development, 1987 cited by Sayce, Mclntosh, Walker, 2004). The character
for sustainability design is the intention of the site and region that
responding to the environmental by Architect Glen Murcutt. (William, 2007). Industrial
development has improved much better compared to previous processes that was
made during the past. However, the economics of industrial increased and
influenced the people that has difficulties achieving the desired living
standards.

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Figure 1 – The three rings of sustainability
illustrate interdependence of the elements

 

As William (2007) said, sustainable energies
is the power for the solutions. The importance of sustainable thinking is
produced from endurance and beauty. A method to solve the economics, social and
environmental challenges of the project is created by the significant of sustainability
design. Energy efficiency is way past discussion if the “get-to” place is
sustainability.

The central to sustainable design and
planning are how the projects are designed and predominantly how the design
program is interpreted. In addition, if energy efficiency does not consist as
part of program requirement on the project, requirements will hardly be
fulfilled. Therefore, if sustainable design is the foundation of the program
requirement, the design solution is category from energy, form, construction
processes, materials, native place, and long life.’

‘Green design is an element of sustainable
design and is about the environmentally responsible and resource-efficient
throughout a building’s life-cycle. The ‘work’ is done for free when the purpose
of design powered by design solutions that consist sustainable energies. Free
work is provided by natural system and it powers all ecology.’

“As architects and planners, work on a
project until it is done, then move on to the next one been taught. But design,
like sustainability, is a dynamic and living process. Sustainability is not a
point that when reached, all is fine. Sustainability, in another word,
continuum, as a calculus: dp ® S,
meaning design and planning approaching
sustainability. There are no other ways to look at sustainability. A design
is sustainable, or it is not. Adjustments can be made to make a building
sustainable when it is not. If it is sustainable, in all certainty that it will
be changing and evolving. Sustainability is not invariable – it is frequently
changing, based on evolving knowledge that connects science and design.”

‘With a functioning unplugged design from external
non-renewable energy sources and resources, a building will definitely be
sustainable. It is not sustainable if the building or community is highly
energy efficient but cannot function unplugged. Designers will start to take
the steps to creating sustainable buildings once they embrace the unplugged
challenge. Design creates sustainability.’

There are three components that should be
considered in the design process which is connectivity, indigenous, and long
life. Firstly, connectivity is about the relationship between the project, the
site, the community, and the ecology. Make fewer changes to the natural system
functioning. The place specific with Natural characteristics should be
reinforce and steward. Secondly, indigenous is design with and for what has
been resident and sustainable on the site for centuries. Lastly, long life is
regarding the design for future generations while reflecting past generations.

PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY BUILDINGS

 

Environmental Sustainability

 

Environmental
sustainability is concerned with the conversation of natural resources, the
avoidance of pollution, the minimising of waste and the protection of
bio-diversity. Not only that, it is also concerned with the reduction in
activities believed to contribute to global warming.

One of
the vital environmental issue is the energy consumption because of fossil fuel
depletion and also for its contribution to carbon emissions which in turn are
associated to global warming. Buildings take up to 50% of all energy consumed
compare with 25% each in industry and transport in the UK energy, consumption
is of special importance to it. Approximately up to 90% of building energy is
consumed in use rather than construction, but that energy used in buildings is
wasteful with up to 75% and is fixable by altering it with some simple
improvements. In relation to the environmental sustainability of buildings, there
are many other considerations including minimising waste, location factors and
so on.

Only 2%
of our building stock are represented by new buildings and determining the fate
of an existing building brings many other factors into play including the
occupiers’ understanding of and commitment to a sustainable environment on a
global scale.

The
interests of different stakeholder groups can sometimes conflict and the
capital costs of meeting environmental objectives may not be reflected in
benefits or returns for those responsible for the expenditure during the life
cycle of a building.

The objective
is to identify some of the different and potentially conflicting issues which
need to be considered and to help owners, users and the wider community to
understand the matter to be addressed.

 

According
to Hawken, Lovins and Lovins (1999:3), “Humankind has inherited a 3.8
billion-year store of natural capital. At present rates of use and degradation,
there will be little left by the end of the next century.” (Cited by Sayce,
Walker and Mclnthosh, 2004)

 

There are
some main points from environmental sustainability of a building which is,
environmental degradation, ozone depletion, global warming, fossil fuel, acid
rain, sick buildings, water or air pollution and the building internal
environment.  Environmental degradation
has some key physical manifestations of the ‘environmental problem’ which have
particular relevance to the buildings are shown. Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
are used in refrigeration, air conditioning, building insulation and firefighting
equipment in buildings. The loss of this natural protective layer
which can lead to increased incidence of skin cancer, eye complaints, and
damage to crops has been more focused on brings attention on the exhaustion of
ozone at high levels and the anticipated global warming which will arise from.

Global warming is believed by many already to have caused significant climate changes,
which are likely to increase unless the underlying factors are addressed within
a relatively short time-scale. It is caused by emission of the so-called
“greenhouse gases” which are water vapour, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4),
Nitrous Oxide (N2O), and halocarbons CFC11 and CFC12. But the major problems
related with global warming are the climate changes, which is occurring at a
rate sufficient to affect the ecological balance and flooding and violent
weather patterns, which again also affect the areas of land suitable for
development and the types of building which would be sustainable for these
locations. Both of these have an impact on the type and nature of developments
possible and of course have a knock-on effect on insurance of buildings and
their value. Next is fossil fuel depletion, the UK is still dependent on fossil
fuel with less than 10% of its energy being obtained from renewable sources,
such as water, wind and solar power. Fossil fuel depletion causes two
requirement which are the need to reduce fuel consumption where this is based
on fossil fuel and the need to ensure that alternative sources of power are
utilised wherever possible. Pollution emissions in heavy industrial areas, and
is typical of a ‘trans-boundary’ problem leads to acid rain. Sick buildings
that mean a variety of factors including harmful chemical emissions from
carpets and other building materials, combined with occasional pathogens
breeding in the constantly recycled air in the ventilation systems, caused
illness amongst the building occupants. Air pollution can be caused by building
use and process emission and by traffic emission. Sulphur dioxide, lead, carbon
dioxide and particulates are the type of pollution. Traffic pollution is a major
problem that is being capture primarily through planning legislation. Water
pollution, resulted by run-off from agriculture chemicals, sewage and
industrial discharges is also a growing problem. Above are considered as the
building external environment. Moreover, the internal environment of
buildings are concerned as light, ventilation, noise, and pollution control.

 

Light

Top
energy consumer in most buildings are artificial lights. To reduce the use of
artificial lights, bringing in more natural light and the duration of it. This
also has benefit of creating a better environment. For example, by adding large
windows it can distribute light deeper into a building, reducing dependence on
artificial lighting. However, natural light may produce its own problem with on
VDU screens or associated heat gain. Therefore, apart from the benefits in
saving energy and reducing running costs, natural light increases the
sense of wellbeing in the building users.

 

 

Ventilation

Without the use of fan or any other source of ventilation/air
in a building it could bring in more natural ventilation like the process of
supplying and removing air through an indoor space by natural means. It uses
outdoor air flow caused by pressure differences between the building and its
surrounding to provide ventilation and space cooling. There are pros and cons
to this process and some of the cons are the potential to spread disease, poor air
quality dust dirt etc. that can have effect on maintenance or cleaning of
fabric and plant, as well as circulating smells and odours. Some of the pros to
this is that the raising concerns regarding the cost and environmental impact
of energy use can be solved. Not only does natural ventilation provide
ventilation (outdoor air) to ensure safe healthy and comfortable conditions for
building occupants without the use of fans, it also provides free cooling
without the use of mechanical systems. As natural ventilation becomes
increasingly important in terms of occupier satisfaction as well as energy
usage, buildings that do not offer the possibility of good utilisation of
natural light may well be compromised increasingly in terms of their life span.

 

Noise

Noise can
be a problem to some individuals for example, internal noise and disturbance
between users, physical damage, disturbance to neighbours, noise through walls,
and noise from plant are all important considerations. Not only does the external
noise is constrained by legislation in residential areas it also occurs in
working areas where noise from construction and demolition disrupts the working
environment and reduces productivity. Where environmental impact assessments
are required as part of a planning application the effect of the building works
is a consideration to be taken into account in determining the application. In
due course it is likely that similar considerations will be applied to smaller
buildings.

 

Pollution control

There are many forms of environmental
pollution arising from building use, including noise, smells, light and
vibration. Light pollution and the risks of pollution arising from the disposal
of waste have already been considered. A significant proportion of pollution
however is airborne and is the result of direct discharge of fumes, combustion
materials, chemicals used in industrial processes or polluted air from
ventilation systems and air conditioning plant. Historically one of the most
pervasive causes of pollution was the effect of coal smoke on the environment
in towns which not only gave rise to day-long smogs, health risks, loss of
production, and hazards for transport but also caused extensive damage to
buildings. In addition to the sources of pollution mentioned above, some
building materials have toxic or pollution effects.

Social
sustainability

 

There is no single definition of social
sustainability; it depends on the context. Principal concern of social
sustainability include issues of health and safety, well-being and respect for
people. Social sustainability is increasingly related to matters of corporate
governance and business ethics; collectively labelled as Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR). Economic success is now seen as linked to adherence to
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) principles. For building, social
sustainability relates to matters of location, planning and building
regulations.

 

In the workplace social sustainability relates
primarily to issues of health and well-being, including health and safety and
the relevant regulations; employment including utilisation of skills and
knowledge; eradication of poverty and child labour; inclusivity, equity and
co-operation; relationships, working and personal and including respect for
people and stakeholder dialogues; information management and security; values,
norms and ethics; and fair governance. These issues are about dealing with
people fairly in the cause of promoting what UK government has espoused as a
better quality of life (DETR, 1999) which through the application of Agenda 21
to the policies at local level aims to create equitable and sustainable
communities. The Natural Step organisation (www.naturalstep.org) in defining its principles of
sustainability describes the aim thu: ‘ contribute as much as we can to the
goal of meeting human needs in our society and world-wide, going over and above
all the substitution and dematerialization measures taken in meeting the first
three objectives of sustainability.’ The message they promote is of the
efficient use of resources within a framework of fairness and proper
responsibility so that the needs of all people can be best assured now and on
an intergenerational basis.

 

There is a matter of process and regulation in
social sustainability part. The difficulties inherent in defining and
implementing social sustainability are debated in the research papers of the
Sigma Project (Henriques and Raynard, 2001). The authors define social
sustainability in terms of both process and substantive achievement elements.

Noting the difficulties experienced at the macro and governmental level they
advocate a process definition where social sustainability needs to be seen in
terms of adherence to standards, the development of which will set the
frameworks and mechanism within which goals can be set and measured. It follows
from this that an essential ingredient of social sustainability is governance
and both self and governmental regulation.

 

There are several strands to human well-being
ranging from issues such as the quality of the environment within which people
operate to matters of physical protection and security. On a global scale it
embraces that right to self-determination and political freedom; on a micro
scale it encompasses the right to live without fear of attack in safe city
streets. Another important aspect of human well-being is that of health and
education. Indeed these dominate the human development indicators published by
the United Nations Development Programme (www.hdr.undp.org) which lists the
indicators of human well-being as follows:

–           Life
expectancy, including both at birth and overall. This is a surrogate for
health;

–           Education,
including participation rates at both secondary and tertiary levels and adult
literacy;

–           Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) per head.

While the composition of the index is not
without its critics it does demonstrate the emphasis placed on health and
education as measures of well-being.

 

Work issues are closely linked to human
well-being. They concern fair remuneration as well as health and safety in the
workplace, working hours etc. With global trade, the issue of worker protection
from exploitation is not a domestic matter only.

If the goal is towards more sustainable
buildings, then the social sustainability characteristics of buildings should
be considered as part of the evaluation as being worthy of retention. At the
level of the building, social sustainability may be a goal but it is not yet
one that has been reached in any quantifiable way. This section and the BSAT
(Building Sustainability Assessment Tool) aim to address this deficiency, at
least in part. In order to investigate the issue of social sustainability of
buildings it must be seen from the perspective of both an internal and external
stakeholder.

 

Economic
Sustainability of Buildings

 

Economic sustainability has no specific
definition as it all depends on the prevailing economic system. Nowadays,
economic concepts are recognised but no profits are made and full allowance for
external costs and benefits are also usually not made especially to those
relating to external stakeholders. Sustainable buildings typically have less
annual costs for energy, water, maintenance and other operating expenses. At
its simplest it can be defined as that the economic activity which continues in
the short and long term to the extent that the revenue or over all return
generated exceeds the cost of its creation. The basic assumption is that,
within

 

Measuring economic sustainability from global
to organisational measurement starting with the global perspective it is clear
that definitions of economic sustainability mean different things to different
groups of people – depending on their relationship with the organisation under
consideration. Economic sustainability is usually considered in terms of gross
domestic product (GDP), real incomes and a range of other indicators, including
employment. The World Bank tracks a range of indicators to measure success
including economic prosperity measured in GDP terms, economic growth rates,
debt and its ability to be managed and savings and investment
(www.worldbank.org).

 

Economic sustainability at the organisation
level

The measurement of economic success of an
individual organisation will normally be viewed in relation to standard
accounting precepts. It is normally a matter of liquidity, profitability and
balance sheet reserves. However, success, as measured in the short-term, does
not constitute sustainability, which is essentially a long-term concept.

 

Accommodating external stakeholders within a
framework for economic sustainability

The analysis above points to a view of
economic sustainability that is still inward focused, although the views of the
external stakeholders are becoming of increasing importance. It is well
recognised within economic theory that all ‘private’ economic decisions have
external consequences or ‘externalities’. In other words, every action has a
social consequence, which goes beyond the immediate economic considerations of
the private decision maker and affects external stakeholders.

For example, the private use of a building
creates CO2 emissions and may cause air pollution, while the travel to it can
lead to traffic congestion.

Economic sustainability for buildings –
wealth creating versus wealth consuming buildings

Any discussion of buildings and economic
sustainability needs to be preceded with a brief understanding of how buildings
relate to the creation and consumption of wealth. Very broadly, buildings can
be categorised into wealth creating buildings and wealth spending buildings.

 

Economic viability of buildings

As discussed above a building’s form and
construction has long-term implications even with regard to its demolition and
the possible reuse of its elements. Most buildings, with adequate maintenance,
are capable of survival over considerable periods even when designed like the
post war prefab for a finite life-span. The design life of building is
increasingly governed by life-cycle costing considerations but despite the
existence of a specific life expectation in practice economic sustainability
will normally outweigh other considerations in determining its life span.

 

Internal stakeholder economic viability

When undertaking any conventional property
appraisal for private investment purposes, whether in connection with proposed
development or redevelopment or for other purposes, the effects of the building
on other parties, economic or otherwise, are ignored. The concerns of different
internal stakeholder sub-group differ and it is useful to consider these as
follows.