DESIGN rim by using ANSYS14.5. Ansys is a

DESIGN
AND ANALYSIS OF GO KART WHEEL RIM BY USING CATIA AND ANSYS

Yash
Fule1, Sopan Kadu2, Akshay Amrutkar3, Hitesh
Khirsagar4

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1,2,3,4G.H.Raisoni
College of Engineering And Management

Abstract:
The
purpose of wheel rim is to provide firm base on which fit the tire. The aim of project
is to design the wheel rim of go kart vehicle using CATIA V5 and analyze this
wheel rim by using ANSYS14.5. Ansys is a tool used for evaluation for system
and structures.                                                               

First
the wheel rim is designed by using modeling software CATIA V5. In modeling the
time required for producing the complex 3-D models and risk involved in design
and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So that we made the modeling
of go-kart wheel rim with the help of CATIA.

Later
the CATIA model is imported in the ANSYS14.5 where the wheel rim is analyzed
under certain circumstances and Conditions.

We
Analyze the wheel rim by taking different materials in consideration and taking
forces or the pressure acting due to air pressure in the tube.

1.
INTRODUCTION: Automotive wheels have developed over the
decades from early spoke design of wood and steel. Carry over’s from wagon and
bicycle technology, to flat steel discs and finally to the stamped metal
configuration and forged aluminum alloys rims of today’s modern vehicle.
Historically successful design arrived after year of experience and extensive
field testing. Since the 1970’s several creative methods of testing well aided with
experimental stress measurement have been initiated.

In
recent years, the procedure have been developed by variety of   experimental and analytical methods of
structural analysis is (strain Gauge and finite element method). Within past 10
years, durability analysis (fatigue life prediction) and reliability method for
dealing with changes inherent in engineering structure have been applied to
automotive wheel.

            Motor vehicles are produced according to very strict rule
to ensure safety of the passengers. Every component is designed according to
its final conditions of components. Wheels are classified as safety critical
component and international codes and according to the specification is used to
design a wheel.

            The inside diameter of the tire must fit precisely onto
the rim, it would be impossible for the inside diameter of tire to pass over
large diameter of the tire without causing damage to the beads. Forcing the
beads into rim well opposite to the fitting head of the machine during the
fitting or removal process, allows the tire bead enough purchase to pass over
the rim flange.  

1.2FUNCTIONS
OF A WHEEL RIM

In its vital form a wheel
rim is a transfer element between the tire and the vehicle. The following are
the main functions of a wheel rim:

Ø  Transfer
torque (braking and acceleration).

Ø  Support
mass (support the mass of the motor vehicle).

Ø  Adds
mass (damped mass for diving comfort).

Ø  Dissipate
heat (from braking).

Ø  Absorb
Impact (road hazard).

Ø  Conserve
Energy (potential energy in momentum).

 2. THEORY OF WHEELS: The
tire works as a wheel only after it is set up on the rim and is inflated
therefore; the tire and wheel assembly effects the function and performance of
the vehicle. The tire is designed and manufactured to suit a typical rim and
once installed on the correct rim the tire will perform up to its preferred
level. It is unnecessary to say that the life of the tire will be reduced if it
is installed on an inappropriate rim. The rim is actually the name for the
cylindrical part where the tire is installed. A wheel is the name for grouping
between rim and disc plate. Once the disc plate is fixed inside the cylinder
this assembly becomes a wheel.

2.1Rim
Nomenclature

1.
Wheel: Wheel is generally composed of rim and disc.

2.
Rim:
This is the part where tire is installed.

3.
Disc:
This is the part of the rim where it is fixed to the axle hub.

4.
Offset: This is the space between wheel mounting surface
where it is bolted to hub and Centre line of rim.

Fig.
Wheel Rim 2D

5.
Flange: The flange is part of rim which hold both beds of the
tire.

6.
Bead Seat: Bead seat approaches in contact with bead face and it
is part rim which hold the tire in a radial direction.

7.
Hump: It is a bump what was put on the bed seat for the
bead to prevent the tire from sliding off the rim while vehicle is moving.

8.
Well: This is a part of rim with depth and width to
facilitate tire mounting and removal from the rim

3.
TYPES OF WHEEL RIM/WHEELS: Car wheels are divided in to two main
categories, steel wheels and alloy wheels. Alloy wheels are often fitted
standard during the manufacturing of modern vehicles.

3.1STEEL
WHEELS: All steel wheels consist of two pressed components,
the rim and the wheel disc, which are welded together. The rim is the part on
which tyre is mounted. Its dimensions shape and condition must suitable to satisfactorily
accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. The wheel disc is the
supporting member between the vehicles hub and the rim. Its dimensions shape
and location in the rim must be suited to the design of the wheel hub and the
suspension geometry of the vehicle to which it has to be mounted. The purpose
of the rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Four vital
dimensions are involved.

They
are the wheel diameter (a precise fit between tyre and rim is of utmost
importance), the rim width, the flange height (designed to give adequate
support to the tyre beads without changing the flux area of the side wall) and
the rim-well (to facilitate the easy mounting and demounting of the tyres.

Because
the inside diameter of the tyre must fit precisely onto the rim, it would be
impossible for the inside diameter of the tyre to pass over the large diameter
of the tyre rim without causing damage to the beads. Forcing the tyre bead into
the rim well opposite to the fitting head of the machine during the fitting or
removal process, allows the tyre bead enough purchase to pass over the rim
flange.

Fig. STEEL DISC

3.2ALLOY
WHEELS: Alloy
wheel is often incorrectly referred to as magnesium or “Mag” wheels. Magnesium
is used in alloys. Whereas, they are almost found only in racing rims meant for
the track. Its brittle also highly flammable qualities make it unsuited as a
road rim. Lower pressure, die-casted aluminum alloy wheel is used and provide
certain benefits over steel wheel. It is possible to design alloy wheel that
alloy for the better air flow over the brakes and that are also slightly
lighter as well as visually more attractive than steel wheel. Since alloy is
lighter than steel, wider rims can be used without sacrificing unsprung weight.

Fig.
ALUMINIUM ALLOY WHEEL

4.
TYPES OF MATERIAL USED FOR WHEEL RIM DESIGNING:

In designing go kart wheel rim we use 3 materials
these are as follows:

1. Aluminum Alloy

2. Magnesium Alloy

3. Forged Steel

The properties of the
materials are as follows:

1. Aluminum Alloy:

Density

2.77e-009
tonne mm^-3

Coefficient
of Thermal Expansion

2.3e-005
C^-1

Specific
Heat

8.75e+008
mJ tonne^-1 C^-1

Tensile
Ultimate Strength MPa

310

 

 

Tensile Yield
Strength MPa

280

 

 

2. Magnesium Alloy:

Density

1.8e-009
tonne mm^-3

Coefficient
of Thermal Expansion

2.6e-005
C^-1

Specific
Heat

1.024e+009
mJ tonne^-1 C^-1

Thermal
Conductivity

0.156
W mm^-1 C^-1

Resistivity

7.7e-004
ohm mm

 

Tensile
Yield Strength MPa

193

Tensile
Ultimate Strength MPa

255

 

3. Forged Steel:

Density

7.6e-009
tonne mm^-3

Coefficient
of Thermal Expansion

1.2e-005
C^-1

Specific
Heat

4.34e+008
mJ tonne^-1 C^-1

Thermal
Conductivity

6.05e-002
W mm^-1 C^-1

Resistivity

1.7e-004
ohm mm

 

Tensile
Yield Strength MPa

550

Tensile
Ultimate Strength MPa

850

5.
STEPS INVOLVED IN DESIGNING GO KART WHEEL RIM BY USING CATIA V5:

1. Draw rim sketch in
sketcher catia as follow

2. Then used shaft
command for revolving sketch.

3. Then Project inner
mounting in sketch and pad it.

6.
RESULTS OF ANALYSIS ON GO-KART WHEEL RIM:

We use ansys 14.5 for
analysis of go-kart wheel rim by using different types of materials. The
results of these analysis are as follows:-

6.1
Aluminum Alloy:

The deformation occurs in
the wheel rim is 0.0016 mm.

Fig.
Deformation of rim

The equivalent stress in
the wheel rim is 3.967 MPa

Fig.
Equivalent Stress

The factor of safety of
the wheel rim is as follows:

FOS = Maximum
stress/Working stress

FOS = 280/3.967

FOS = 70.58

6.2
Magnesium Alloy:

The deformation occurs in
the wheel rim is 0.00259 mm.

Fig.
Deformation of rim

The equivalent stress in
the wheel rim is 3.9370 MPa

Fig.
Equivalent Stress

The factor of safety of
the wheel rim is as follows:

FOS = Maximum
stress/Working stress

FOS = 193/3.9370

FOS = 49.02

6.3
Forged Steel:

The deformation occurs in
the wheel rim is 0.00053 mm.

Fig.
Deformation of rim

The equivalent stress in
the wheel rim is 4.0492 MPa

Fig.
Equivalent Stress

The factor of safety of
the wheel rim is as follows:

FOS = Maximum
stress/Working stress

FOS = 550/4.0492

FOS = 135.82.

7.
CONCLUSION:

1. According to our
analysis we found that the deformation due to the load/pressure of the tyre and
tube in the forged steel is minimum than aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy.

For the deformation of
wheel rim we can follow relation given below:

Forged Steel > Aluminum
Alloy > Magnesium Alloy

2. The cost of the forged
steel is greater than that of aluminum alloy and also of magnesium alloy. The forged
steel has greater Strength but has high cost than aluminum alloy.

Aluminum Alloy >
Forged Steel > Magnesium Alloy

We overall conclude that
the aluminum alloy is mostly preferred for the wheel rim because it has low
cost and it also has good strength. Forged steel has high cost. Magnesium alloy
has strength between aluminum alloy and forged steel.

Material

Deformation

Equivalent Stress

Factor of Safety

Aluminum
Alloy

0.0016
mm

3.967
MPa

70.58

Magnesium
Alloy

0.00259

3.9370

49.02

Forged
Steel

0.00053

4.0492

135.82