Actub, education curriculum to incorporate 12 years. By

Actub, Gael T.; Caylan, Grisielou L.; Ranque, Phamy L.; Rosaroso, Marvin A.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTIONBackground of the StudyThe Philippine Educational System is one of the shortest formal education in the world, covering a span of 14 years only. It follows a structure of 6 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary education and 4 years of higher education. Compulsory education is offered to grade 1–6 only, commonly known as the primary education. Secondary education on the other hand comprises 4 levels and specifies mandatory curriculum. In contrast to primary education, the tertiary or higher education does not negotiate compulsory education.  The Philippines is one of the three countries remaining in the world, namely Djibouti and Angola in Africa, and the only remaining country in Asia with a 10- year pre-university program. For this reason, the country formulates an idea that adapts the educational system of the majority.To address this evident problem on education, the Department of Education has started to implement the new K-12 Curriculum, which is a major reform in the curriculum for all schools nationwide. This reform includes boosting of basic education for mastery and extending of basic education curriculum to incorporate 12 years. By prolonging the basic education, that is, adding kindergarten and two years in high school, the program ensures that graduates earn the necessary skills and reach the legal age for employment to qualify entrance into the world of work, if they desire or need to do so. On the other hand, graduates who opt to go to tertiary education are deemed better prepared for college study (Seameo Innotech, 2012). A major change brought about by K-12 curriculum is the addition of two years in secondary education, known as Senior High School (SHS). The old 4-year secondary curriculum will be now renamed as Junior High School (JHS) which starts from Grades 7 to Grade 10, and Senior High School will follow through from Grades 11 to 12. The newly implemented curriculum offers the highlights on opportunity specialization in Academic, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, Sports and Arts fields. The chosen tracks depends on the students’ preference, interest and capacities. Also, it will determine the subjects to be taken by the student during his/her Senior High School. The tracks mentioned are as follows: Academic Track a. Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM) b. General Academic Strand (GAS)c. Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) d. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)2. Technical-vocational Track      a. Agriculture-Fisheries       b. Home Economics       c. Industrial Arts       d. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) 3. Sports Track4. Arts and Design TrackStatement of the Problem This study aims to determine the different factors that affects the Senior High School strand preference of selected 10 students.Leading factors that affects the students’ preference in choosing Senior High School strand in terms of::Personality Family/RelativesInterestsJob OpportunitiesHow do these factors do affects the student’s decision making in choosing Senior High School strand?Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Gottfredson’s theory, occupational aspirations are a reflection of one’s self-concept. People seek occupations that (a) arc congruent with their self-image and (b) reflect their knowledge of different occupations. This theory describes that students become attracted to certain specialization. According to this theory, self-concept is the key to specialization selection. Students tend to choose jobs that are compatible with their personality. The key determinants according to the theory are one’s social class, level of intelligence and experiences with sex typing. In the study of Siguan Jr., (1994) as cited in Sonsona (2012) self-concept was also found significant on the choice of specialization of students. Another is Holland’s theory of career choice suggested that people can function and develop best and find jobs satisfaction in work environments that are compatible with with their personalities. People tend to choose a career that is reflective of their personality. Holland (1994), suggest that the closer the match of personality to job, the greater the satisfaction. Holland’s theory places emphasis on the accuracy of self-knowledge and career information necessary for career decision making (Zunker, 1994 p. 49) as cited in Abernathy (2003).The focus of this study was undertaken by the following conceptual framework.Input – This includes their track preference and the factors that affect their preference.Process – In the research process, this includes determining their track preferences and determining the leading factors that affect their preference.Output – This study would identify the track preferences of Grade 10 students of Valencia National High School and the factors that affect them which can be used as basis for a career guidance program of the said school and for certain institutions that would like to design and implement a Senior High School program.Significance of the StudyLearning is the aspect of development that connotes modification of behavior, skills and knowledge that results from practice and experience which sought for quality education. The generalization of this present study would be a great contribution to the vast knowledge in relation to student’s achievements. Vital results of this investigation could be highly significant and beneficial specifically to the following:Researchers – This study will inspire them to be creative to carry out programs that are beneficial to both teachers and students, especially in Senior High School. Students – As the prospective Senior High School learners in the future, the findings of this study would benefit and inspire them to formulate and act upon on their career plans in the future.Future Researchers – This study would serve as reference that would help in conducting their own research studiesScope and DelimitationsThe study is to be administered at Valencia National High School. The said school is selected based mainly on the proximity of its location to the researchers and on the kind of the education that they offer to its clientele. Valencia National High School, commonly known as VNHS is situated at Lapu-lapu St., Poblacion, Valencia City, Bukidnon. The school stimulates the students’ rights to quality, equitable, culture-based and complete basic education. For this reason, the student hones skills and attitude while maintaining sense of self-discipline. This study focuses on the senior high school track preferences of their Grade 10 students of the Academic Year 2017-2018. Definitions of TermsEducation – the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university. K-12 Curriculum – in general educational term, it typically refers to the content being taught and the learning experiences students have in the school setting in grades kindergarten through twelve. K-12 program – is the newly implemented educational system in the PhilippinesSenior High School – is the second part of secondary education under the K-12 program, wherein the students would take up the subjects under their career pathway specializationCareer Pathways – optional courses that offers the student for specialization in academic, technical-vocational, sports and arts, and entrepreneurship