3.0 Effective communication comes from how individuals are able to dive deep into understanding the perception of themselves, others and the use on non-verbal cues. Perception is the process through which we make meaning of the world around us, people we see in our everyday life. It also involves, how we select, organise and interpret what we perceive through our senses to create our individual assessment. (Dimbleby & Burton, 2007) Our perception of ourselves and others is an important part of decoding meaning because it depend of our individual knowledge, attitudes, values and beliefs. There are two main aspects to how we perceive ourselves; self and self-esteem. 1.0 Self is an internalized view of how we see ourselves. Roy Baumeister(1999) defines self as “the individual’s belief about himself or herself, including the person’s attributes and who and what they are”. As we grow and experience the world and other we tend to gather and identify who we are. There several components of self, there is self image which gives one the view you have of yourself. What you wish or hope you were really like called the ideal self, and the most important aspect of self image is self-esteem. Self-esteem is the amount of value we tag on ourselves in other words, self esteem is how we evaluate ourselves whether is good or bad view of ourselves. (Dimbleby & Burton, 2007) Whatever picture we have of ourselves, it is our self-esteem that affects the way we interpret our self image. For example, we may have bad experience or difficulty pass exams, however we do not have low esteem over that because we know that we are better at doing other things. Our level of self-esteem do not just have an effect on us but also the communication we have with others. Communication can be ineffective due to certain perceptual filters and error. For example, when an individual sees a lion in a jungle, one might feel that it will attack. You see from here that, the first thought in the mind is ‘ATTACK’ and that is the perception of the individual. This is a good example of perceptual error because that may not be the case, the lion may probably be running away from you. 3.1There are several types of perception errors and filters that can hinder effective communication, one can talk of fundamental attribution error, false consensus, false consistency, primacy effect, halo effect, recency effect, preconceptions, self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping. However, this essay will concentrate on how stereotyping, fundamental attribution error, primacy and recency effect and halo effect can hinder our communication process.When we are not mindfully communicating, our stereotypes automatically tend to activate especially when people try to categories others. Unconsciously, we try to make confirmation of our expectation when we communicate with people. When people stereotype they create their self fulfilling prophecies. They try to identify behaviour i order to be able to confirm their expectations even though they may not be present. When people tend to stereotype other because of their race, ethnicity, culture, gender et al, they do not take thing they say seriously. One tend to believe that they cannot be right because how we have categorized them. Not taking people seriously, not given them chance and listening to them and ridiculing them make communication very ineffective.Fundamental attribution error is another perpetual error that can hinder effective communication. Fundamental attribution error is how individuals try to explain people’s behaviour based on their internal factors, for example their disposition or personalities without considering their external factors, such as situations that may influence the person’s behaviour. (Gilbert & Malone, 1995). For example, we may attribute bad character to person and blame them on that bases for losing their job and not considering external factors like a bad economy that has made them redundant. When we prejudge people based on their personality they tend to hinder they way we communicate to them.Our first impression are called primacy effect. This is very essential as they create the pace and tone for any interactions in the future. Recency effect on the other hand are our final impressions. This is also important because it the way that people remember us. Our first and last impression are much more paramount than any other impression we may form during our communication with people. When people form bad impression about others it influences communication because they are judge wrongly automatically.Another perceptual error is the halo effect. The halo effect is classified as a cognitive bias, where one’s overall impression over someone is affected or influenced by the way we see or think about their character. Most important our impression of who they are has an impact on how we evaluate their unique traits. For example if we think that someone is nice then we make an evaluation that they are also smart. When we assumptions based on what we see on the outside it may hinder communication because we may assume that they understand what we are saying. In essence it limits us from expressing ourselves fully and they we tend to forget the most important things. 3.2 It is very important to recognize our perceptual tendencies to avoid drawing wrong conclusion. Interpersonal communication is sometimes very complex and can often be unconscious. To become good communicators, one must raise awareness of some common perceptual tendencies in order to work towards improve them.Showing empathy for others feelings is a perceptual skill one can develop to become a better communicator. Empathy is our ability to understand and show sensitivity to others feelings. (cambridge dictionary) it is a natural phenomenon that develops naturally in individuals. However, one can develop empathy skills over a period of time, by using a close interaction and a good system of feedback. You can aptly perceive others by way of emphasizing with them. Withholding judgement is a key to improving our perceptual skills. As humans, it very natural that we draw impressions about things or others rapidly. Within a couple of meeting people have with other they quickly draw a conclusion about the person. It is very wrong to form judgement with such a limited information within such a limited period of time. It is then proper to pick up strategy like postponing our impression until we have enough collected information about people.Again, another useful way to avoid perceptual error is comparing information in diverse ways. By making comparison, we are exposed to different opinions and potential have more meaning and understanding of certain situation. This makes us good communicators because we try to seek further information and value the outcome. Communicating openly is must be done with uttermost care, one should be aware that communicating well so that the right people get messages at the appointed time in the right way. Information that is properly transmitted and is followed by an appropriate feedback help to avoid perceptual distortions and improve our communication.Our attitudes, beliefs and values have a strong effect on the way we perceive others. It is then very important that, one develop a positive attitude by disallowing their personal biases to come in and affect their perceptual powers. If one holds a negative attitude towards someone it is highly and undoubtedly possible to have distortions in their perception about them. 2.1 Our perception of others non-verbal message is essential if one want to have an effective communication. It is a general fact that for every relationship to grow, whether personal or profession, it is important to know its foundation rest on our non verbal communication. because they speak the loudest. Our non verbal communication is the an important tool that help us to convey what we truly mean and also help us create connection with others.1.0 Non-verbal messages and behaviour occurs before people communicate verbally because, individuals rely more on non-verbal communication the moment they are conceived by their mothers. Non-verbal messages are very important due to it intrinsic characteristics. Before one utters a statement, his or her body language and facial expression is observed by the listener to be able to identify the true meaning of his or her symbolic messages. Non-verbal messages according to Dimbleby includes the tone of one’s voice, facial expression, pitch of one’s voice, gestures that one exhibit through his or her body language (kinesics) and the distance between individual communicating (proxemics). ( Dimbleby and Burton, 2007) According to Dimbleby the types of non-verbal communication can be grouped into three main headings namely; body language, paralanguage and dress.Body language speak a lot about our individual feelings,attitudes and intentions. Film actors express to their audience very well through the way they use their non-verbal cues to show the role they play in a movie. Body language include five mean elements, as follows: gestures, facial expressions, body posture, body space and proximity and touch also known as haptics. In our professional discussion in class, we identified gestures as the way we use our arms and hands. ( Dimbleby and Burton, 2007) Gestures is a typical example used mostly by deaf people. Deaf people express their thoughts and feelings through the use of their hands. One draws attention in a class by waving their hands or try to describe things like objects, width and heights. Politician often use hand gestures when speaking, mainly to express confidence or emphasize a point. Gesture may also vary in cultures and countries. For example, in the United States a thumbs up might mean a sign of approval but in Bangladesh it is recognised as an insult. (Katie Amie,dailymail 2015) Our facial expression usually reveals our true emotions and mood. People tend to look up for the expression written in one’s face to weigh them up. For example when some looks at you a lot then it suggested that they have interest in you. We tend to do a lot of starring when trying to encode and decode people body signs.We also establish that body posture is the way we hold our bodies together. When one is relaxed in posture, it signifies confidence to the one we are talking to. In the west, people often stand slightly averted position during conversation because it is regarded as polite and show mutual friendship. ( Dimbleby and Burton, 2007) proximity is another element of body language which is the distance between people either by way of standing or sitting. According to Dimbleby, one needs space in order to make them feel comfortable. Age or sex of a person makes a lot of different because people normally don’t get too close unless the know each other very well. It is very easy to identify the relationship between two people by the way they treat their body space. Touch is an element of body language is about who we touch, when, where and how we touch. Touching reveal a lot about our relationship with others. Generally, women do a lot touch with women same as children touch adults. However this does not apply to all situations, especially concerning people who are in love. Evidently, British people are not touchy among the nations of the world. When we are touched by other during conversations, it gives us a sense of safety and we feel more friendly towards towards themParalanguage as a type of non-verbal communication, gives us more in depth understanding of how we interpret the meaning of word in our communication process. It shows the non-verbal cues that follows a speech. ( Dimbleby and Burton, 2007) paralanguage are expressed through they way we pronounce certain words. These are pitch, tone or our voice and stress. People who generally make public speech are fond of saying words like ‘er’ and ‘um’ which generally signals that they are thinking of what they want to say next or hold on. We may scream when we are in pain to express such feeling. Paralanguage suggest people’s emotion and state of mind.Dress is the last type of non-verbal communication. It is is a kind of non-verbal communication that has to do with the way we dress, how we use make-up, the style of our hair and jewelry. (Dimbleby & Burton, 2007) Whether its interpersonal or group communication, personal appearance convey a nonverbal stimuli that often affect the emotion and attitudes preceding the verbal words. A speaker’s hairstyle, clothing, neatness, uses of cosmetics, neatness and stature may cause listeners to form impressions about her or her occupation, socioeconomic level, competence, etc. (Murphy and Hildebrandt, 1997). We sometimes use clothing to indirectly communicate to people our age, economic class, gender and political views. Look at the pictures below. How we dress shows people who we are and signals our identity. People often perceive as by just looking at how we have dressed even though they have not verbally communicated. You can easily identify people’s background, religion by how they are groomed and the clothes that they wear. For example an African wearing an african wear automatically is notice that they are from Africa.These non-verbal messages can give clues and extra information and meaning over and above speech, therefore one can say that non-verbal messages can be used as an alternative to speech. This is because non-verbal messages like sign language, gestures, Dress or appearance say a lot even before a person say a word. For example deaf people uses sign language are a means of communication because they cannot hear spoken words. Then again a man or a woman wearing a police uniform signal a message through his or her dress that he or she is a works in the police force. Non-verbal messages reinforces or modifies what is said in words. It reveal our feeling and let the receiver know what the speaker truly feels. For example, people may nod their heads vigorously when saying “Yes” to emphasise that they agree with the other person, but a shrug of the shoulders and a sad expression when saying “I’m fine thanks,” may imply that things are not really fine at all. It convey information about their emotional state.Non-verbal messages communicates what is not said. The involuntary nature of much non-verbal communication makes it more difficult to control or face. For example, although you can consciously smile a little and shake hands with someone when you first see them, it’s difficult to fake that you are happy to meet someone. Non-verbal communication leaks out in ways that expose our underlying thoughts or feelings. This in essence makes non-verbal communication more credible. Although we can rely on verbal communication to fill in the blanks sometimes left by non-verbal expressions, we often put more trust into what people do over what they say. This is especially true in times of stress or danger when our behaviors become more instinctual and we rely on older systems of thinking and acting that evolved before our ability to speak and write. (Andersen, 1999) An example of the innateness of non-verbal signals can be found in children who have been blind since birth but still exhibit the same facial expressions as other children. In short, the involuntary or subconscious nature of nonverbal communication makes it less easy to fake, which makes it seem more honest and credible. Non-verbal messages also regulate conversation. The clues that a speaker gives non-verbally helps with the flow of the conversation. For example by signalling to others that they have finished speaking or wish to say something. It helps us regulate our conversations so we do not end up constantly interrupting each other or waiting in awkward silences between speaker turns. Pitch, which is a part of paralanguage, helps us cue others into our conversational intentions. A rising pitch typically indicates a question and a falling pitch indicates the end of a thought or the end of a conversational turn. We can also use a falling pitch to indicate closure, which can be very useful at the end of a speech to signal to the audience that you are finished, which cues the applause and prevents an awkward silence that the speaker ends up filling with “That’s it” or “Thank you.” We also signal our turn is coming to an end by stopping hand gestures and shifting our eye contact to the person who we think will speak next. (Hargie, 2011) Conversely, we can “hold the floor” with nonverbal signals even when we’re not exactly sure what we’re going to say next. Repeating a hand gesture or using one or more verbal fillers can extend our turn even though we are not verbally communicating at that moment.